In the XIX century the forming of the appearance of the historical center of Petersburg was completed. The new palaces of the royal family and the nobles and the buildings of the state institutions were constructed. Under the Emperor Alexander I the Russian Empire gain a victory in the Patriotic War over French invaders under the leadership of Napoleon. Petersburg was adorned with monuments, devoted to the glorification of the military power of the Russian Empire. In December 1825 there was the uprising of the nobles who were against the accession to the throne of the Emperor Nicolay I. The revolt was suppressed but its event went down in history of the city as one of the first revolutionary attempts to change the monarchial order.
The city continued its development in the different spheres. In 1837 a first railway was stretched from Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo. This age was called the Golden Age of the Russian literature and art. The poets A.Pushkin, M.Lermontov, the writers N.Gogol, F.Dostoyevsky, the artists O.Kiprensky, K.Brullov worked in Petersburg. Under the Emperor Alexander II in 1861 serfdom was repealed and the former peasants went off in search of a living to Petersburg. The city filled with a new working class. At that time unrest became stronger in the city. The nobles were discontented with the supreme power and dreamed of democracy and liberalism. In 1881 the participants of the radical group killed the Emperor Alexander II on the place of the future temple ? Our-Savior-on-the-Split-Blood. The Emperor Alexander III decided to tighten the screws and this policy leaded to unfortunate results for the Russian monarchy.