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XX century

XX century

The last Emperor Nicolay II couldn?t resist increasing unrest of the working class and the progressive nobles. In January 1905 a peaceful demonstration of the laborers was fusilladed in front of the Winter Palace. This event, called Bloody Sunday, leaded to the February Revolution in 1917. The revolutionary forces assaulted the Winter palace, arrested the royal family and organized the Provisional government and the Council of Petrograd. But the difficulties between parties brought to the new Revolution. October Revolution was leaded by V.Lenin. The Provisional government and the Council of Petrograd were overthrown and Bolsheviks find themselves in the head of the country. The Russian Empire became the USSR and after Lenin the capital of the country moved to Moscow. Petersburg became the second city of the USSR, but it remained a cultural capital of Russia. In the art the beginning of the XX century was called the Silver century. At that time in Petersburg worked such poets as N.Gumilev, A.Akhmatova, A.Block; such artists as N.Roerich, A.Benua and others. In 1924 Petersburg got a new name ? Leningrad. New regime forced a lot of residents of Petersburg left not only the city, but the country. At that time different soviet institutions were constructed in the city. The socialist realism became ruling over the art.

The next important event in the life of Petersburg became the Second World War. Petersburg is situated close to the state frontier that?s why when the German invaders marched in Russia they found themselves near Petersburg quickly. The city was captured in the ring of the blockade. The blockade lasted 872 days ? from 8 September 1941 till 27 January 1944. During the Blockade a lot of residents of Petersburg died of starvation because the city wasn?t ready for the siege. A part of the urban population was evacuated along ?the Road of Life? that went over the Lake Ladoga. Only in 1943 the Russian forces could run the blockade and in 1944 completely raised the siege. During the Blockade Petersburg and its suburbs suffered a lot from bombing and different objects of the cultural heritage were blown up, burnt out and destroyed by the divergent German forces. Next years Leningrad tried to recover from losses and restore the buildings, roads and all service lines of the city. By the 1980-s Petersburg turned into the one of the most beautiful cities in the world again. In 1991 Petersburg returned its original name Saint-Petersburg. Since 1990-s the city has been taken under the protection of the UNESCO.

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